# Line searches, trust regions, learning rates¤

`optimistix.AbstractSearch`

####
```
optimistix.AbstractSearch
```

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The abstract base class for all searches. (Which are our generalisation of line searches, trust regions, and learning rates.)

See this documentation for more information.

#### ¤

####
```
optimistix.LearningRate (AbstractSearch)
```

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Move downhill by taking a step of the fixed size `learning_rate`

.

#####
`__init__(self, learning_rate: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex])`

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####
```
optimistix.BacktrackingArmijo (AbstractSearch)
```

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Perform a backtracking Armijo line search.

#####
`__init__(self, decrease_factor: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.5, slope: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.1, step_init: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 1.0)`

¤

**Arguments:**

`decrease_factor`

: The rate at which to backtrack, i.e.`next_stepsize = decrease_factor * current_stepsize`

. Must be between 0 and 1.`slope`

: The slope of of the linear approximation to`f`

that the backtracking algorithm must exceed to terminate. Larger means stricter termination criteria. Must be between 0 and 1.`step_init`

: The first`step_size`

the backtracking algorithm will try. Must be greater than 0.

####
```
optimistix.ClassicalTrustRegion (AbstractSearch)
```

¤

The classic trust-region update algorithm which uses a quadratic approximation of the objective function to predict reduction.

Building a quadratic approximation requires an approximation to the Hessian of the
overall minimisation function. This means that trust region is suitable for use with
least-squares algorithms (which make the Gauss--Newton approximation
Hessian~Jac^T J) and for quasi-Newton minimisation algorithms like
`optimistix.BFGS`

. (An error will be raised if you use this with an incompatible
solver.)

#####
`__init__(self, high_cutoff: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.99, low_cutoff: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.01, high_constant: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 3.5, low_constant: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.25)`

¤

In the following, `ratio`

refers to the ratio
`true_reduction/predicted_reduction`

.

**Arguments**:

`high_cutoff`

: the cutoff such that`ratio > high_cutoff`

will accept the step and increase the step-size on the next iteration.`low_cutoff`

: the cutoff such that`ratio < low_cutoff`

will reject the step and decrease the step-size on the next iteration.`high_constant`

: when`ratio > high_cutoff`

, multiply the previous step-size by high_constant`.`low_constant`

: when`ratio < low_cutoff`

, multiply the previous step-size by low_constant`.

####
```
optimistix.LinearTrustRegion (AbstractSearch)
```

¤

The trust-region update algorithm which uses a linear approximation of the objective function to predict reduction.

Generally speaking you should prefer `optimistix.ClassicalTrustRegion`

, unless
you happen to be using a solver (e.g. a non-quasi-Newton minimiser) with which that
is incompatible.

#####
`__init__(self, high_cutoff: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.99, low_cutoff: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.01, high_constant: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 3.5, low_constant: Union[Shaped[Array, ''], Shaped[ndarray, ''], Shaped[bool_, ''], Shaped[number, ''], bool, int, float, complex] = 0.25)`

¤

In the following, `ratio`

refers to the ratio
`true_reduction/predicted_reduction`

.

**Arguments**:

`high_cutoff`

: the cutoff such that`ratio > high_cutoff`

will accept the step and increase the step-size on the next iteration.`low_cutoff`

: the cutoff such that`ratio < low_cutoff`

will reject the step and decrease the step-size on the next iteration.`high_constant`

: when`ratio > high_cutoff`

, multiply the previous step-size by high_constant`.`low_constant`

: when`ratio < low_cutoff`

, multiply the previous step-size by low_constant`.