# Norms¤

At several points, it is necessary to compute the norm of some arbitrary PyTree. For example, to check that the difference between two adjacent iterates is small: `||y_{n+1} - y_n|| < ε`

, and thus that an optimisation algorithm has converged.

Optimistix includes the following norms. (But any function `PyTree -> non-negative real scalar`

will suffice.)

Info

For the curious: Optimistix typically uses `optimistix.max_norm`

as its default norm throughout. This is because it is invariant to the size of the problem, i.e. adding extra zero padding will never affect its output. This helps to ensure a consistent experience as the problem size changes. (This property is "sort of" true of `optimistix.rms_norm`

, and not at all true of `optimistix.two_norm`

.)

####
`optimistix.max_norm(x: PyTree[ArrayLike]) -> Array`

¤

Compute the L-infinity norm of a PyTree of arrays.

This is the largest absolute elementwise value. Considering the input `x`

as a flat
vector `(x_1, ..., x_n)`

, then this computes `max_i |x_i|`

.

####
`optimistix.rms_norm(x: PyTree[ArrayLike]) -> Array`

¤

Compute the RMS (root-mean-squared) norm of a PyTree of arrays.

This is the same as the L2 norm, averaged by the size of the input `x`

. Considering
the input `x`

as a flat vector `(x_1, ..., x_n)`

, then this computes
`sqrt((Σ_i x_i^2)/n)`